PLANT ANATOMY 2: CRYPTOGAMS - NON-FLOWERING PLANTS....continued

Schizophyta: Schizomycetes (Bacteria):
Bacteria from the film on the teeth, carbol-fuchsin - Treponema pallidum in the liver, Levaditi’s silver impregnation - Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ziehl-Neelson’s stain - Streptomyces griseus, carbolfuchsin - Bacillus megaterium, cell walls, tannin-methyl violet - Bacillus megaterium, nuclear equivalents, acridin-orange- Fluorescence - Rhodospirillum rubrum, purple bacterium, carbol-fuchsin - Flagellated bacteria from putrescent water - Bacillus subtilis, hay bacillus - Closterium tetani, Loeffler’s spore stain.

Cyanophyceae (Blue-Green Algae):
Gloeocapsa sp. - Nostoc sp. - Rivularia sp. - Oscillatoria sp., chromato- and centroplasm, acridine orange-fluorescence - Oscillatoria, volutin spheres.

Pyrrhophyta (Fire Algae):
Different dinoflagellates - Ceratium hirundinella with dinocaryon - Noctiluca miliaris

Euglenophyta:
Euglena sp.

Chlorophyta (Green Algae) Chlorophyceae:
Chlamydomonas reinhardii - Haematococcus sp. - Volvox sp. - Chlorella fusca - Pediastrum sp. - Hydrodictyon sp. - Ulothrix sp. - Oedogonium sp. - Chaetophora sp. - Cladophora sp.

Conjugatophyceae:
Spirogyra sp., conjugating - Different desmidiales.

Charophyceae:
Chara sp., tip of the thallus with apical cell - Chara sp., oogonium and antheridiophore, l.s. -

Xanthophyta (Yellow Algae):
Ophiocythium majus - Tribonema aequale - Vaucheria sessilis - Vaucheria sessilis, oogonium and emptied antheridium.

Chrysophyta: Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms):
Navicula sp. - Pinnularia nobilis, structure of the shell - Surirella sp., mitosis - Melosira varians, formation of auxospores.

Phaeophyta (Brown Algae):
Ectocarpus sp., plurilocular gametangia - Sphacelaria sp., thallus with apical cell and unilocular sporangium, l.s. - Dictyota dichotoma, apical cells - Dictyota dichotoma, thallus with unilocular sporangium, c.s. - Laminaria sp., phylloid with sporangia, c.s. - Laminaria hyperborea, male and female gametophyte and young sporophyte - Fucus vesiculosus, male conceptacles with antheridia - Fucus vesiculosus, female conceptacles with oogonia.

Rhodophyta (Red Algae):
Polysiphonia sp., antheridia - Polysiphonia sp., cystocarp - Polysiphonia sp., tetrasporangium - Batrachospermum sp., branched filaments with trichogyne and carposporophyte.

Mycophyta (Fungi): Myxomycetes:
Diderma sp., plasmodium - Plasmodiophora brassicae, plasmodia and spores.

Phycomycetes:
Saprolegnia sp. - Peronospora parasitica. - Albugo candida, oogonia and oospores. - Mucor mucedo, black bread mould, sporangium - Pilobolus sp., sporangiophores with sporangia - Rhizopus sp., zygospore formation.

Ascomycetes:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker’s yeast, sprouting cells - Taphrina pruni - Erysiphe sp., with cleistothecia - Aspergillus sp., conidiophore with conidia - Claviceps purpurea, ergot, stroma with perithecia - Peziza sp., hymenium of an apothecium - Morchella sp., morel, asci with ascospores - Tuber rufum, truffle, fructification with hymenium, c.s.

Basidiomycetes:
Basidiomycete living in wood, mycelium with clamp connections - Psalliota sp., pileus with lamellae, c.s. - Coprinus sp., hymenium of a young fructification, c.s. - Scleroderma vulgare, c.s. of the fructification - Puccinia graminis, black rust of grain, pycnia and aecidia on a barberry leaf - Puccinia graminis, uredium with urediniospores - Puccinia graminis, telium with teliospores - Ustilago hordei, covered smut of barley, promycelia with copulating hyphae.

Fungi imperfecti:
Epidermophyton floccosum.

Lichenes:
Physcia sp., c.s. of the thallus - Physcia sp., apothecium with asci, c.s. - Pleurococcus sp., green alga of the bark, enclosed by hyphae of a lichenous fungus.

Bryophyta: Hepaticae (Liverworts):
Marchantia polymorpha, thallus with air chambers, c.s. - Marchantia, gemma-cup with gemmae, c.s. - Marchantia, antheridia, l.s. - Marchantia, archegonium, l.s. - Marchantia, sporogonium with spore capsule, l.s. - Marchantia, spores with elaters, polarisation.

Musci (True Mosses):
Tortula sp., gametophyte with sporophyte, w.m. - Sphagnum sp., sporogonium, l.s. - Sphagnum sp., c.s. of the stalk - Sphagnum sp., leaf - Polytrichum sp., c.s. of the stalk - Polytrichum sp., leaflets, c.s. - Mnium sp., antheridia, l.s. - Mnium sp., archegonia, l.s. - Mnium sp., capsule, l.s. - Mnium sp., protonema.

Pteridophyta: Steles:
Psilotum triquetrum, protostele from a young shoot, c.s. - Psilotum triquetrum, actinostele from an older shoot, c.s. - Lycopodium clavatum, stem with plectostele, c.s. - Pteridium aquilinum, rhizome with polystele (dicyclic solenostele), c.s. - Adiantum sp., maidenhair, rhizome with amphiphloic siphonostele, c.s. - Polypodium sp.,, polypody, rhizome with dictyostele, c.s. - Osmunda regalis, flowering fern, rhizome with stele, c.s. - Equisetum sp., horse-tail, stem with eustele, c.s.

Pteridophyta: Stem and Root:
Equisetum sp., horse-tail, stem, l.s. - Equisetum sp., apex of the stem, l.s. - Isoetes sp., quillwort, c.s. of the stem - Pteridium sp., brake, c.s. of the root.

Pteridophyta: Filicatae (Ferns) Reproduction:
Ophioglossum sp., adder’s tongue, sporophyll with developing sporangia, l.s. - Aspidium sp., shield fern, leaf with sorus, c.s. - Phyllitis scolopendrium, hart’s tongue, sporangium with annulus - Fern Protonema, transition from the filiform to the plane stage - Plane prothallium of a fern - Fern, prothallium with antheridia and spermatozoids - Fern, prothallium with archegonia, l.s. - Fern, prothallium with young sporophyte.

Pteridophyta: Sporangia:
Lycopodium clavatum, common club moss, sporophyll with sporangia, l.s. - Psilotum triquetrum, primitive fern, synangium, c.s. - Equisetum sp., horse-tail, sporophylls with sporangia, c.s. - Selaginella sp., sporophylls with micro- and macrosporangium.

Spermatophyta: Pinidae, Reproduction:
Laryx europaea, larch, pollen grain, c.s. - Pinus silvestris, pine, cover scale, megasporophyll and ovule, l.s. - Pinus silvestris, archegonium, l.s. - Pinus silvestris, seed with embryo, l.s.